New research provides useful genetic resource of farm-raised kuruma shrimp
Kuruma shrimp are thought-about a delicacy in Japan. Credit: OIST

New analysis from the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) and Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology has resulted in a helpful genetic resource on the kuruma shrimp. These are one of many largest species of prawn (females can attain 27cm in size) and are discovered all through the Indian and Pacific Oceans. In Japan, they’re thought-about a delicacy and have been a serious fisheries and aquaculture product (particularly in Okinawa) for the reason that early twentieth century. But a giant downside with the shrimp farms is that the excessive density of the animal signifies that illnesses unfold rapidly.

One regarding disease is a viral an infection referred to as white spot disease, which is likely one of the most threatening pathogens to shrimp aquaculture worldwide. It is deadly and extremely contagious; outbreaks have worn out total farms in just some days.

“We’re interested in the relationship between aquaculture animals and disease-related bacteria and viruses,” defined Dr. Eiichi Shoguchi, a Group Leader within the Marine Genomics Unit at OIST. “Having this genetic resource on hand could be useful for producing a disease-resistant line of the shrimp or vaccines.”

Supported by OIST’s DNA Sequencing Section, the researchers used two completely different methods—genome sequencing and transcriptome sequencing—to produce this genetic resource. Their work was revealed in G3: Genes l Genomes l Genetics.

A genome is the total set of genetic info present in each cell. It is subdivided into genes. These genes are made up of DNA base pairs and every gene comprises the directions wanted to create a protein, and thus leads to the right care and upkeep of a cell. For the directions to be carried out, the DNA should first be transcribed into RNA. A transcriptome is a set of all these gene readouts. In some methods, the transcriptome can be thought-about a mirrored image of the genome. Some genes would possibly be associated to disease resistance, and a few people might include variations of those gene that leads to stronger resistance. If these genes can be recognized, then it could be attainable to set up a disease-resistant line of shrimp.

New research provides useful genetic resource of farm-raised kuruma shrimp
Kuruma Shrimp are an essential aquaculture product in Okinawa, second solely to mozuku seaweed. Credit: OIST

Firstly, the researchers centered on deciphering the genome. They took one kuruma shrimp from a business farm in Okinawa and generated the preliminary sequences. This produced many quick DNA sequences which, though helpful, did not present the researchers with sufficient clues to string them collectively. Essentially, that they had all of the items of a puzzle however no approach of assembling it. They then used a second know-how to produce longer, however much less exact, DNA sequences–the scaffolding of the genome. By bringing the 2 sequences collectively they have been in a position to assemble a draft of the genome.

Following this, the researchers analyzed 49 RNA samples of various shrimp people (together with each adults and larvae). This offered them with 66,406 high-quality gene readouts—the draft of the transcriptome.

“The kuruma shrimp genome provides us with a comprehensive catalog of immune-related genes,” defined Mr. Satoshi Kawato, lead writer of the paper and Ph.D. scholar on the Laboratory of Genome Science, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology. “This will allow us to better understand how shrimp respond to pathogens and will aid in developing strategies for preventing disease outbreaks. The genomic resources will also help address various other aspects of shrimp biology, such as growth and reproduction.”

When their work was in contrast to that of the kuruma shrimp’s kin—the large tiger prawn and the whiteleg shrimp—almost 70% genes was discovered to be the identical throughout all three species, which means {that a} excessive variety of genes have been preserved.

“We think that this will serve as a useful resource for future research to understand the shrimp‘s basic biology,” concluded Dr. Shoguchi. “But it could also be used for fishery management and to establish a breeding program.”

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More info:
Satoshi Kawato et al, Genome and transcriptome assemblies of the kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus, G3 Genes|Genomes|Genetics (2021). DOI: 10.1093/g3journal/jkab268

Genetic resource could be used to protect farm-raised kuruma shrimp from disease (2021, September 13)
retrieved 13 September 2021

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