Showcasing America’s most promising younger scientists and engineers, the Blavatnik Family Foundation and the New York Academy of Sciences at present named 31 finalists for the world’s largest unrestricted prize honoring early-career scientists and engineers.

Three winners of the Blavatnik National Awards for Young Scientists – in life sciences, chemistry, and bodily sciences and engineering ­- might be introduced on July 20, every receiving $250,000 as a Blavatnik National Awards Laureate.

The finalists, culled from 298 nominations by 157 United States analysis establishments throughout 38 states, have made trailblazing discoveries in wide-ranging fields, from the neuroscience of habit to the improvement of gene-editing applied sciences, from designing next-generation battery storage to understanding the origins of photosynthesis, from making enhancements in pc imaginative and prescient to pioneering new frontiers in polymer chemistry. Descriptions of the honorees’ analysis are listed under.

“Each day, young scientists tirelessly seek solutions to humanity’s greatest challenges,” mentioned Len Blavatnik, founder and chairman of Access Industries, and head of the Blavatnik Family Foundation. “The Blavatnik Awards recognize this scientific brilliance and tenacity as we honor these 31 finalists. We congratulate them on their accomplishments and look forward to their continued, future discoveries and success.”

President and CEO of the New York Academy of Sciences Nicholas B. Dirks mentioned: “Each year, it is a complete joy to see the very ‘best of the best’ of American science represented by the Blavatnik National Awards Finalists.”

“On behalf of the New York Academy of Sciences, we are extremely proud to administer the Blavatnik National Awards. This prize honors scientists at a pivotal career juncture, where support and recognition can make a huge impact on their career and their potential for future innovations and discoveries,” he mentioned.

Three extremely revered unbiased juries – every representing one of the awards’ classes – will decide the successful Laureates, who should be faculty-level scientific researchers and engineers 42 years of age or youthful.

The Blavatnik Awards for Young Scientists will have a good time the 2021 Blavatnik National Awards honorees in a ceremony on Sept. 28 at the American Museum of Natural History in New York.

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About the Blavatnik Awards for Young Scientists

The Blavatnik Awards for Young Scientists, established by the Blavatnik Family Foundation in the U.S. in 2007 and independently administered by the New York Academy of Sciences, started by figuring out excellent regional scientific expertise in New York, New Jersey and Connecticut. The Blavatnik National Awards have been first awarded in 2014 and, in 2017, the Awards have been expanded to honor faculty-rank scientists in the United Kingdom and in Israel. By the shut of 2021, the Blavatnik Awards may have awarded prizes totaling $11.9 million. Sixty-one p.c of all Award recipients are immigrants to the nation through which they have been acknowledged and hail from 47 nations throughout six continents, reflecting the Blavatnik Family Foundation’s recognition that necessary science is a worldwide enterprise. For updates about the Blavatnik Awards for Young Scientists, please go to www.blavatnikawards.org comply with on Twitter and Facebook @BlavatnikAwards.

About the Blavatnik Family Foundation

The Blavatnik Family Foundation is an energetic supporter of world-renowned academic, scientific, cultural and charitable establishments in the United States, the United Kingdom, Israel, Russia and different nations all through the world. The basis is headed by Len Blavatnik, a worldwide industrialist and philanthropist and the founder and chairman of Access Industries, a privately held industrial group based mostly in the U.S. with international strategic pursuits. Visit www.accessindustries.com or www.blavatnikfoundation.org.

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The 2021 Blavatnik National Awards Finalists
 

2021 Blavatnik National Awards Finalists in Life Sciences
 

Michael Fischbach, Stanford University
Symbiotic microbes have a exceptional expertise for modulating their host’s biology. The bacterial communities in people, similar to these in the intestine, are related to illnesses similar to Crohn’s and diabetes. Microbiologist, Michael Fischbach, Ph.D., systematically profiles small molecules produced by micro organism that mediate the interactions between the microbiome and its host. His improvement of novel genetic methods has uncovered genes in a selected bacterial species discovered on the pores and skin, which produces a molecule with antibiotic properties. Fischbach’s analysis gives new insights into how the microbiome can impression our immune system at the molecular degree.

Viviana Gradinaru, California Institute of Technology
Because most medicines can not cross the blood-brain barrier to enter the mind, treating sure neurological illnesses requires invasive surgical procedure to ship medicine on to the mind. Neurotechnologist Viviana Gradinaru, Ph.D., has developed methods to bypass this barrier by engineering innocent viruses which are administered inside the physique intravenously. These systemic viruses cross the blood-brain barrier and ship cargo similar to genes or gene enhancing instruments to deal with neurological illnesses. Gradinaru has additionally used her drug supply system to focus on issues in the peripheral nervous system and neurons positioned in the intestine which will trigger or contribute to Parkinson’s illness. This work strives to find surprising sources and noninvasive remedies for a number of neurological illnesses.

Kaiyu Guan, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Novel sensing and modeling applied sciences developed by environmental scientist Kaiyu Guan, Ph.D., are revolutionizing how we monitor agricultural productiveness and sustainability. Guan’s satellite- and supercomputer-enabled know-how measures and predicts photosynthesis, crop water and nitrogen use, and crop yield. His improvements can generate day by day “views” of each farm on the planet going again 20 years in order that farmers can handle their fields for water and nutrient wants. The know-how additionally permits to precisely monitor environmental footprints and carbon emissions. Guan’s knowledge assortment methods are extremely economical and scalable. Guan’s applied sciences allow weather-forecasting-like skills to foretell field-level agroecosystem insights and may promote “precision agriculture” to information farming practices as farmers encounter and adapt to local weather change.

Sun Hur, Boston Children’s Hospital
To set off an immune response when a virus like COVID-19 enters the physique, cells should discriminate between the RNA they naturally produce and the overseas RNA inserted by the virus. Immunologist Sun Hur, Ph.D., found how cells carry out this discriminatory analysis utilizing proteins known as RIG-I-like receptors. If they decide that the RNA is from a virus, the receptors ship a sign to the cell to alert the neighbors and immune system of a viral an infection. Sun additionally discovered that if this course of goes awry, the physique can enter a state of fixed irritation, inflicting inflammatory illnesses similar to Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome. Her analysis is offering perception into wholesome immune responses in addition to ones that go awry.

Houra Merrikh, Vanderbilt University
Antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide well being disaster and looking out for new antibiotic medicine seems to be a shedding technique. Because micro organism evolve and construct resistance to those new medicine, regardless of their efficiency or mechanism, we desperately require fully new options. Houra Merrikh, Ph.D., has found a doubtlessly transformative answer: forestall and even reverse bacterial evolution. Merrikh discovered that micro organism produce a specific protein that promotes the improvement of antimicrobial resistance, and she or he has recognized medicine that may forestall this protein from forming. By stopping bacterial evolution, micro organism stay vulnerable to antibiotics to which they’d have in any other case developed resistance.

Stanley Qi, Stanford University
CRISPR know-how has grow to be nicely often called a technological breakthrough to edit genes. Stanley Qi, Ph.D., is a bioengineer pushing CRISPR know-how to new limits past enhancing. Qi helped create a know-how known as CRISPR interference and CRISPR activation, often called CRISPRi/a.  CRISPRi/a interacts with DNA to silence or activate particular genes, with out altering the DNA sequence, which creates the capability to alter stem cells into therapeutic cells similar to neurons. He has modified CRISPR as an imaging software to seize real-time “movies” of the dynamic course of of gene transcription and the motion of chromosomes. Qi’s transformation of conventional CRISPR into an antiviral remedy reveals promise to deal with COVID-19 and the flu.

Mikhail G. Shapiro, California Institute of Technology
The lack of appropriate applied sciences to noninvasively picture and management mobile operate inside a residing physique is a large limitation for learning, diagnosing, and treating a variety of illnesses. Mikhail G. Shapiro, Ph.D., is a biochemical engineer who has created groundbreaking applied sciences utilizing sound waves and magnetic fields to visualise and management sure mobile capabilities, similar to gene expression. He has designed cells that may make air-filled buildings made of proteins often called gasoline vesicles. Shapiro can picture, monitor, and management cell functioning inside residing animals and sufferers by manipulating the gasoline vesicles and different proteins. This modern mixture of ultrasound and biomolecules has the potential to enhance imaging know-how for diagnosing most cancers and even activate neurons noninvasively.

Peter Turnbaugh, University of California, San Francisco
Scientists have made appreciable progress towards understanding how food regimen and genetics drive various responses to medicine. However, analysis has ignored how our “second genome”–the trillions of microorganisms that thrive in and on the body–can alter a human’s response to medicine. Peter Turnbaugh, Ph.D., is a microbiologist tackling this complicated problem. He examines how particular intestine bacterial species can metabolize medicine, doubtlessly lowering the quantity of drug out there to the physique. This course of goes each methods. Turnbaugh discovered that medicine meant to focus on mammalian cells can have unanticipated results on the intestine microbiome. Understanding the reciprocal exercise between intestine micro organism and its host might be crucial to design efficient medicine which have minimal impression on the microbiome.

Kay M. Tye, Salk Institute for Biological Studies
Problems in processing reward, concern, and studying may cause a spread of psychiatric issues. Neuroscientist Kay M. Tye, Ph.D., investigates the neural circuitry that drives these feelings and cognitive skills to grasp habit and melancholy. She found a neural pathway that underlies an animal’s willingness to interact in compulsive, reward-seeking behaviors regardless of unfavorable consequences–a sample noticed in binge-eating and alcohol use issues. This neural circuitry might be a goal for therapeutic interventions. Tye’s habit analysis recognized a group of neurons that function a biomarker that predicts whether or not an animal will develop compulsive binge-drinking habits, even earlier than being uncovered to alcohol.

Ahmet Yildiz, University of California, Berkeley
Cells depend on molecular motors to move proteins and different mobile parts all through the cell. These “motors” journey alongside a group of molecular roadways often called the cytoskeleton. Defects in molecular motor proteins, like dynein, may cause neurodegenerative illnesses similar to ALS. Through his ingenious mixture of molecular imaging and single-molecule measurements, molecular biologist Ahmet Yildiz, Ph.D., found how dynein takes steps on the cytoskeleton and generates forces to hold its cargoes. Using his modern instruments, he revealed how dynein achieves unidirectional motion and uncovered important molecules that activate and regulate dynein motility in cells. This analysis offers perception into potential remedies for neurodegenerative illnesses.
 

2021 Blavatnik National Awards Finalists in Chemistry
 

Shannon Boettcher, University of Oregon
To make trade and power manufacturing sustainable, scientists should discover new methods to transform and retailer power and produce fundamental chemical compounds from renewable sources. Shannon Boettcher, Ph.D., is a rising chief in the subject of electrochemistry.  Using electrochemical processes to make our industrial economic system greener, he has superior know-how that turns easy mixtures of water and atmospheric gases into hydrogen gas, plastics, chemical compounds, and fertilizer. Boettcher has developed new approaches to grasp catalysts that cut up water into clear oxygen and hydrogen gas and uncovered supplies with file efficiency for the oxygen evolution response, analysis that contributes to a future unbiased of fossil fuels.

Brandi Cossairt, University of Washington
The nanoscale is an thrilling frontier in science. Synthetic chemist Brandi Cossairt, Ph.D., helps lead the cost to grasp how nanomaterials type, develop, and behave. Cossairt has harnessed floor chemistry to functionalize, shield, and improve nanoparticles, and created a set of predictive ideas that would speed up the improvement of nanotechnology based mostly on easy and scalable solution-processed supplies. The impression of Cossairt’s work can already be seen in poisonous components being faraway from tv shows and LEDs, and in improved nanoparticle catalysis for the manufacturing of fuels and fertilizers. Looking additional into the future, Cossairt is designing generalizable strategies to create massive networks of linked nanoparticles and hybrid nanoparticle supplies that would exhibit highly effective new performance.

Paul Dauenhauer, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
Chemical engineer Paul Dauenhauer, Ph.D., is pioneering methods to synthesize shopper chemical compounds from sustainable uncooked supplies. Today, many commonplace supplies like cleansing provides or plastics are constituted of fossil fuels. Dauenhauer is searching for to exchange fossil fuels with glucose, a easy sugar from vegetation. Through this transformative line of analysis, Dauenhauer has achieved high-yield manufacturing of detergents, plastics, and artificial rubber from glucose, all performing in addition to conventionally sourced merchandise. Beyond his inexperienced synthesis strategies, Dauenhauer can be forging new paths in power storage, growing a foundational catalyst concept to retailer power in the type of ammonia.

Mircea Dincă, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Most supplies that conduct electrical energy are densely packed metals. Inorganic chemist Mircea Dincă, Ph.D., has confirmed that sure porous materials–metal-organic frameworks (or MOFs)–can additionally conduct electrical energy and be utilized in gas cells and supercapacitors, which play crucial roles in inexperienced know-how methods. Taking inspiration from how particular person molecules can conduct electrical energy, Dincă achieved a conducting MOF by weaving a community of conducting molecules right into a porous strong. Dincă has operated his MOFs as supercapacitors and may retain efficiency after repeated use, a vital property for their use in business merchandise. Dincă is partnering with Lamborghini to include MOFs for power storage in future electrical supercars.

Danna Freedman, Northwestern University
The second quantum revolution brings the promise of extremely highly effective technological instruments, with quantum computer systems and sensors custom-made to particular duties. Inorganic chemist Danna Freedman, Ph.D., research quantum bits (or qubits, the constructing blocks of quantum computer systems) based mostly on particular properties of particular person molecules. Molecules are uniquely well-suited for a bespoke quantum system: tuning their atomic composition and construction adjusts their efficiency. Freedman has elevated molecular qubits to the leading edge of quantum info science, having achieved file stability and demonstrating optical read-out of a molecular qubit state. Freedman has additionally pushed new frontiers in materials synthesis: she has achieved never-before-seen compounds utilizing extraordinarily excessive pressures. Freedman is opening up new potentialities to design supplies for particular capabilities by making many extra combos of components attainable.

Prashant Okay. Jain, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Prashant Okay. Jain, Ph.D., a bodily chemist, is unlocking extra potential capabilities from some of the most typical catalysts, similar to iron or platinum, through the use of gold nanoparticles to reap power from gentle. Shining gentle on gold nanoparticles creates synchronized vibrations of electrons, known as plasmons, inside the gold. Jain has found that these plasmons focus gentle and set off new chemical reactions that will not in any other case happen utilizing the catalysts alone. Using this phenomenon, he has developed “plasmonic photosynthesis,” whereby carbon dioxide is transformed into fuels and priceless molecules like methane or ethylene, offering a possible methodology to each change fossil fuels and harvest carbon dioxide from the environment.

Rebekka Klausen, Johns Hopkins University
Rebekka Klausen, Ph.D., is pushing artificial polymer chemistry in modern instructions. By making use of the ideas underlying carbon-based synthesis to different components in the periodic desk, Klausen has achieved unprecedented management over the construction and performance of silicon-based molecules and polymers. These ideas might allow tailored, ultrasmall silicon chips designed atom-by-atom for particular purposes. Klausen can be working to disprove the fundamental tenet that oil and water can not combine. Her strategies to combine compounds with properties like oil and water probe each elementary questions, similar to the physics underlying the mixing of dissimilar substances, and will finally handle profound environmental challenges, similar to cleansing up oil spills or enabling true mixed-stream plastics recycling.

Wei Min, Columbia University
Physical chemist Wei Min, Ph.D., is a frontrunner in the imaging of molecules in organic settings. Despite in depth efforts, many molecules stay unseen inside cells. Using the strategies developed in Min’s laboratory, scientists can observe the complexity of pure methods in real-time with a lot better element than ever earlier than. Min has demonstrated strategies to look at particular person molecules with chemical info, monitor the movement of small molecules in organic methods with large accuracy, and detect dozens of totally different molecules concurrently. The capability to picture cells and tissues with this element may considerably add to our understanding of the mobile world and the development of illness, and will enhance therapeutic instruments and drug supply strategies. 

Hosea M. Nelson, University of California, Los Angeles
Hosea M. Nelson, Ph.D., is an natural chemist breaking new floor in synthesizing and characterizing the small natural molecules that function precursors to chemical compounds we use day by day, from plastics to drugs. Nelson has contributed to the improvement of microcrystal electron diffraction (MicroED), a cutting-edge approach that may determine the construction of small molecules sooner than ever, which may speed up the manufacturing of new chemical compounds, like drugs and gas. He has additionally found new reactions to create useful bioactive molecules utilizing extra sustainable catalysts, yielding extra desired merchandise than typical catalytic strategies. Nelson’s work even applies to medical diagnostics–he is growing next-generation genetic exams for illnesses, together with COVID-19, that could be sooner and cheaper than PCR-based exams.

Sara Skrabalak, Indiana University
Synthesizing supplies on the nanoscale is just not the solely software scientists have to manage a fabric’s properties. Inorganic and supplies chemist Sara Skrabalak, Ph.D., is spearheading new efforts to form and construct the structure of nanoparticles that may unlock new performance. Skrabalak’s strategies and methods can create nanoparticles with lovely and complicated shapes, rivaling even the complexity of snowflakes. She has demonstrated how these new structural options can promote and catalyze reactions, like the splitting of water molecules. Building on her understanding of nanoparticle synthesis, Skrabalak has developed strategies for producing nanomaterials at scale and demonstrated the capability to “fingerprint” merchandise utilizing nanoparticles, doubtlessly making counterfeiting harder.

Wenjun Zhang, University of California, Berkeley
Chemical engineer Wenjun Zhang, Ph.D., crosses the frontiers of chemical biology and biomolecular engineering in the subject of “Natural Products Chemistry”–the examine of substances produced by residing organisms. Zhang’s analysis in how pure merchandise behave gives pathways to treatment illness and make trade extra sustainable. Zhang has found novel pure merchandise and tracked their motions in cells, gaining a greater understanding of how pathogens behave and the way they are often inhibited. Additionally, by learning the organic artificial reactions of pure merchandise, Zhang has developed a template for synthesizing frequent chemical precursors from renewable organic sources as a substitute of fossil fuels.
 

2021 Blavatnik National Awards Finalists in Physical Sciences & Engineering
 

Aditya Akella, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Big knowledge analytics, synthetic intelligence, and e-commerce rely nearly fully on a datacenter’s capability to course of huge quantities of info. Aditya Akella, Ph.D., a pc scientist engaged on large-scale knowledge networks, develops applied sciences that dramatically enhance the pace and effectivity of datacenters whereas additionally enhancing the efficiency and reliability of usually bug-prone datacenter networks. By addressing elementary challenges in datacenter networks and analytics, Akella’s analysis will proceed to have a profound societal and scientific impression in areas similar to well being care, particle physics, local weather modeling, and nationwide safety.

Andrea Alù, Advanced Sciences Research Center, The Graduate Center, The City University of New York
Engineer and physicist Andrea Alù, Ph.D., is difficult the limits of supplies science, influencing a variety of engineering purposes in electromagnetics, nano-optics, and acoustics. By tailoring the interactions of electromagnetic and acoustic waves with synthetic supplies, Alù is demonstrating, each theoretically and experimentally, how cleverly designed nanostructured meta-materials can push the boundaries of physics. His work results in new and enhanced materials applied sciences with potential purposes that embrace: mobile communications, power harvesting, radar cloaking, optical computing, and nano-optics.

Kristen Grauman, University of Texas at Austin
Today, the capability of pc know-how to acquire and retailer pictures and video has outpaced the human capability to research it successfully.  Kristen Grauman, Ph.D., a pc scientist working in pc imaginative and prescient, goals to resolve this downside by focusing her analysis on visible recognition and energetic notion.  Grauman’s analysis has made large-scale crowdsourcing an indispensable software for duties in visible recognition, improved search occasions by orders of magnitude when looking out hundreds of thousands of pictures, and pushed the frontiers of information linking fashionable pc imaginative and prescient with robotics.

Asegun Henry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The unconventional power storage applied sciences developed by mechanical engineer Asegun Henry, Ph.D., leverage the low value of warmth to transform and retailer electrical energy. The mechanical methods developed by Henry and his crew enable extraordinarily scorching molten liquid metals, like tin, to be dealt with at record-breaking temperatures (> 1400°C).  This technological breakthrough has enabled new, low-cost purposes in renewable power and gas manufacturing. One such know-how, coined “sun in a box,” converts and shops electrical energy from inexperienced power applied sciences, like photo voltaic and wind, on-demand. His elementary contributions to the physics of warmth switch are serving to researchers re-imagine power applied sciences.

Liangbing Hu, University of Maryland, College Park
Liangbing Hu, Ph.D., is a self-described “wood nanotechnologist”. His analysis explores the utilization of wood-derived nano-fibers–the most considerable biomaterial on Earth. He has used these nano-fibers to create engineered supplies in methods to enhance power effectivity, to desalinate and filter water, and as environmentally-friendly constructing supplies. Hu’s technological improvements have led to the improvement of a super-strong wooden that’s much like metal in energy however six-times lighter, a clear wooden product that may function a substitute for glass with five-times higher thermal insulation, a wood-based know-how that cools a constructing’s temperature by nearly 10°C with out electrical energy, and a low-cost wooden and water battery for large-scale power storage on the electrical grid.

Graham Neubig, Carnegie Mellon University
Graham Neubig, Ph.D., is re-shaping our understanding of how pc applied sciences can be utilized in purposes similar to private assistants, translation apps, and search engines like google and yahoo. As a pc scientist learning pure language processing, Neubig has a wealthy understanding of language and a mastery of the technical strategies concerned in machine studying. He has made important contributions to the elementary science behind purposes similar to machine translation, speech recognition, and query answering. The open-source software program stemming from his analysis implements methods used to course of phrases, grammatical construction, and semantics and is extensively utilized by analysis organizations and tech firms. Neubig’s analysis might someday make it attainable for audio system of 7,000 totally different languages worldwide to speak instantly with one another, and with computer systems, in their very own phrases.

Noah Planavsky, Yale University
Earth and planetary scientist Noah Planavsky, Ph.D. is rewriting the historical past of organic and environmental evolution on our planet. A scholar at the forefront of geochemical analysis, Planavsky has resolved long-standing geological mysteries concerning Earth’s evolutionary timeline with the assist of novel instruments that he developed.  Using the rock file as a information, his work has led to a brand new view of how the composition of Earth’s environment has modified by time. His analysis offers the first clear proof that photosynthesis emerged roughly three billion years in the past, a lot sooner than beforehand thought, and he has helped form our understanding of why the Earth has been persistently inhabited for billions of years. His analysis additionally lays the basis for new floor and satellite tv for pc telescope applied sciences that might be able to detect oxygen ranges and determine potential indicators of life on exoplanets past our photo voltaic system.

Kilian Weinberger, Cornell University
Computer scientist Kilian Weinberger, Ph.D., has launched vastly new ideas in the quickly evolving fields of machine studying and synthetic intelligence. His novel approaches to machine studying symbolize the most radical departure seen in the previous 30 years. New methods, like “feature hashing” and novel neural community architectures–computer algorithms impressed by the mind’s organic construction and performance, often called “DenseNets”–have made machine studying algorithms extra environment friendly and have lowered knowledge bias with real-world implications. Cloud companies and self-driving automotive applied sciences are already utilizing his methods. His analysis may quickly result in huge enhancements in medical imaging applied sciences which will facilitate early illness prognosis.

Andrea Young, University of California, Santa Barbara
Physicist Andrea Young, Ph.D., is making waves in the burgeoning subject of two-dimensional supplies.  His work on graphene van der Waals heterostructures–ultrathin supplies made of single atomic layers stacked and held collectively by weak van der Waals forces–has enabled radical new approaches to supplies design.  The work has led to the experimental discovery of novel digital phases of matter; for occasion, magnets based mostly on the spontaneous synchronization of the orbital movement of electron, and fractional Chern insulators, the place electrons break aside to localizing a discrete fraction of their cost on the corners of a lattice. Researchers throughout the subject have adopted the methods and experimental breakthroughs realized in Young’s lab, which can someday play a major position in quantum and classical digital.

Guihua Yu, University of Texas at Austin
Guihua Yu, Ph.D., a supplies scientist and nanotechnologist, focuses on designing and utilizing sustainable polymer applied sciences to deal with very important power and environmental issues dealing with society. He has created an thrilling new line of polymeric supplies, known as power hydrogels. Yu has pioneered an unprecedented degree of multi-functionality in these supplies, together with the transmission of electrical energy by way of controlling their electron and ion transport. By merely tuning the method the polymer and water molecules work together, Yu’s hydrogel applied sciences have achieved record-breaking photo voltaic evaporation rates–as photo voltaic steam generators–in seawater desalination and water purification, solar-powered water-harvesters for sustainable agriculture, and next-generation power storage supplies for versatile, wearable electronics.

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