In a nationwide memorial deal with at Oslo Cathedral simply two days after the assaults, Stoltenberg known as for “more democracy, more openness, and more humanity.”
Speaking with NCS’s “Amanpour” present in an interview to mark the anniversary, Stoltenberg — now NATO secretary-general — repeated that message and applauded the best way Norwegians had responded. But, he warned, the “hatred is still out there.”
The writer of one of many experiences, Dr. Jacob Aasland Ravndal, instructed NCS it appeared extra restricted than media protection would counsel. “There was of course a lot of concern after the attacks that they would generate copycat attacks,” he stated. But “somewhat surprisingly,” he stated, there have not been many clear-cut instances of direct inspiration from Breivik.
But though Tarrant claimed to have been impressed by Breivik, investigators discovered that he had began his planning a while earlier than he learn Breivik’s manifesto. “So even there, you can question how much of an impact Breivik had,” Ravndal stated. Tarrant’s personal manifesto is very completely different from Breivik’s, together with in its politics, he added.
Within Norway, analysis signifies that the far proper has not gained a lot attraction general because the assaults and has been unable to show out supporters in any numbers on the streets, Ravndal stated.
“Of course in Norway, as everywhere else, online activity has grown over these 10 years,” he stated. “But whether that reflects a substantial increase of far-right activity or simply mirrors the growth of social media on the internet, that’s very difficult to say.”
(*77*)On that quiet summer time day in 2011, Breivik drove a van full of a do-it-yourself fertilizer bomb into Oslo and parked it outdoors a authorities workplace. A jiffy later, it exploded, killing eight people, injuring many extra and damaging a number of buildings.
Breivik, in the meantime, had set off by automotive on the 25-mile journey to Utoya Island, the place a Labour Party summer time youth camp was going down. Posing as a police officer who was checking on safety following the Oslo assault, he caught a ferry to the island and carried out a taking pictures spree in which 69 people died — most of them youngsters. Many others have been severely wounded.
According to Professor Matthew Feldman, director of the UK-based Centre for Analysis of the Radical Right (CARR), Breivik’s doc can still “easily” be discovered in the darker reaches of the web regardless of efforts to take away it.
That manifesto was “paradigmatic,” Feldman stated, “not just because it showed what one individual can do in terms of the horrific loss of life” but additionally in its focusing on of Muslims and what Breivik known as “cultural Marxism.”
Despite this backdrop, Breivik’s actions and manifesto have gained restricted traction, in response to Ravndal.
His evaluation for C-REX signifies that “in the beginning the far-right across the board rejected him,” stated Ravndal. An on-line help community that was established for Breivik later collapsed. It was solely with the emergence of on-line boards like 4chan and 8chan that Breivik as soon as once more began to get constructive mentions, Ravndal stated.
“The main finding, all in all, both when it comes to tactics but also for political, ideological support, is that it’s been surprisingly little,” he stated. “It’s been possible to find support, but fortunately less than one might have worried about initially considering the high death toll and all the attention these attacks got globally.”
Today, the controversy has shifted in components of Norwegian society to broader ideological questions, Ravndal stated.
Some — significantly in the youth wing of the Labour Party — really feel that there has not been a reckoning with the nation’s far-right motion, the largest participant in which is the populist, right-wing Progress Party, he stated.
“We must all stand together against violent extremism — regardless of whether it comes from the ‘far right’, ‘far left’ or extreme interpretations of religion,” the assertion stated. “Only the extremists will win if we exclude each other from the grief after July 22 and weaken the unity around the struggle for democracy, freedom of expression and equality.”
Labour has promised that if it wins energy in elections this September, it should arrange a brand new fee to take a look at radicalization.
There is additionally debate about whether or not the assault ought to be interpreted as an assault on Norwegian society as an entire, or as an assault on the Labour Party particularly, Ravndal stated. “Today, some within the Labour Party perhaps feel that that part of the story has been neglected a bit.”
Feldman considers that Norway’s response was formed by the sense that the perpetrator was “one of their own,” as have been the victims, with out a sense of “otherness” to drive a extra multicultural response.
“Norway essentially asked itself this question, and it’s a very valid one … ‘How did Norwegian society produce such a monster?'” he stated. “It’s a very inward-looking question.”
By distinction, he stated, New Zealand took a way more world strategy as it checked out what led as much as the Christchurch assaults. This was in half as a result of Tarrant, an Australian, had focused worshipers at mosques, lots of whom have been foreign-born.
He hopes to win additional commitments to counter extremist content material on-line at an occasion he is concerned with in Bergen, Norway, subsequent month.
Breivik’s ideology ‘is still out there’
Speaking to NCS earlier this month, Stoltenberg spoke of the shock he felt as he realized the size of the horrors perpetrated by Breivik — and the non-public disappointment it introduced, since he knew most of the victims.
He additionally stood by the message he delivered to the nation as it was still reeling from the July 22 assaults.
“I still believe that our answer was the right one,” Stoltenberg instructed NCS. “[Breivik] wanted to attack our free, open democratic societies. So the best response is more openness, more democracy, because then we prove that he is not winning, we are winning.
“He demonstrated hatred. The greatest response to hatred is love. So … I actually welcomed the sturdy message from the people of Norway, as (we) have seen additionally in many different international locations which have been attacked, that we rise up for our values.”
That notwithstanding, Stoltenberg does not believe that Breivik has been entirely defeated.
“He is convicted, he is in jail. But his ideology, that is still out there. And due to this fact we have to proceed — I believe we by no means can be in the place the place we are able to say that we’ve received the struggle, we are able to shut the chapter preventing towards extremism.”
Since 2011, Norway has implemented measures to protect — as far as possible — against such attacks in the future, Stoltenberg said. And, he added, Brevik — whose 21-year sentence could be extended in the future if he still poses a threat — has lost in one key respect.
“We have to grasp that the aim of this assault was to vary Norway basically. And … sure, after all, this can be a part of Norway’s historical past,” he said. “It can be a part of who we’re as lengthy as we exist. But basically, it has not modified who we’re.”